Thursday, March 26, 2009


For this posting,I would like to share about the most animal in this world I like and I wish I could to have it one day.

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is a member of the Felidae family; the largest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera.Native to much of eastern and southern Asia, the tiger is an apex predator and an obligate carnivore. Reaching up to 4 metres (13 ft) in total length and weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds), the larger tiger subspecies are comparable in size to the biggest extinct felids.Aside from their great bulk and power, their most recognizable feature is the pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlays near-white to reddish-orange fur, with lighter underparts. The largest subspecies of tiger is the Siberian tiger.

Tigers are perhaps the most recognisable of all the cats (with the possible exception of the lion). They typically have rusty-reddish to brown-rusty coats, a whitish medial and ventral area, a white "fringe" that surrounds the face, and stripes that vary from brown or gray to pure black. The form and density of stripes differs between subspecies (as well as the ground coloration of the fur; for instance, Siberian tigers are usually paler than other tiger subspecies), but most tigers have over 100 stripes. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and thus could potentially be used to identify individuals, much in the same way as fingerprints are used to identify people. This is not, however, a preferred method of identification, due to the difficulty of recording the stripe pattern of a wild tiger. It seems likely that the function of stripes is camouflage, serving to help tigers conceal themselves amongst the dappled shadows and long grass of their environment as they stalk their prey. The stripe pattern is found on a tiger's skin and if shaved, its distinctive camouflage pattern would be preserved. Like other big cats, tigers have a white spot on the backs of their ears.

Tigers have the additional distinction of being the heaviest cats found in the wild.They also have powerfully built legs and shoulders, with the result that they, like lions, have the ability to pull down prey substantially heavier than themselves. However, the subspecies differ markedly in size, tending to increase proportionally with latitude, as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. Thus, large male Siberian Tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) can reach a total length of 3.5 m "over curves" (3.3 m. "between pegs") and a weight of 306 kilograms,which is considerably larger than the sizes reached by island-dwelling tigers such as the Sumatran, the smallest living subspecies with a body weight of only 75-140 kg.Tigresses are smaller than the males in each subspecies, although the size difference between male and female tigers tends to be more pronounced in the larger subspecies of tiger, with males weighing up to 1.7 times as much as the females.In addition, male tigers have wider forepaw pads than females. This difference is often used by biologists in determining the gender of tigers when observing their tracks.The skull of the tiger is very similar to that of the lion, though the frontal region is usually not as depressed or flattened, with a slightly longer postorbital region. The lion's skull has broader nasal openings. However, due to the amount of skull variation in the two species, usually, only the structure of the lower jaw can be used as a reliable indicator of species.

Wau Bulan

Wau bulan is an intricately designed Malaysian moon-kite (normally with floral motifs) that is traditionally flown by men in the Malaysian state of Kelantan. It's one of Malaysia's national symbols, along some others being the kris and hibiscus. The logo of Malaysia Airlines (MAS) is based on this kite.There are many type of wau in Malaysia. Each with its own speciality.Wau kucing(cat kite) and wau merak(peacock kite) are some of them.

Wau Bulan got its name from the cresent-like shape of its tail. Given right color, wau bulan does resemble a rising cresent when flown.

The size of wau bulan is bigger than any other Malaysian traditional kite. The normal width are 2.5 meters and 3.5 meters of height.This helps the decorations painted on the kite's body to be visible when it is high in the air. To make it more distinctive, wau bulan is normally decorated with strong-colored and large patterns.

The Health Benefits of Dark Chocolate

Most of us like to eat dark chocolate,but not all people know the advantage when they eating the dark chocolate,so for this posting, I would like tell you the advantage of eat dark chocolate.
1. To lower your risks of developing cancer
By consuming foods which are high in anti-dioxidants, such as fruits and vegetables. Well, cocoa also contains anti-dioxidants. By eating dark chocolate, you will actually be decreasing your risk of developing cancer.

2. The ability to lower your blood pressure
It contains flavonoids which help the blood flow more smoothly through blood vessels, as well as increase the amount of blood that can flow to the brain. This will decrease your risks of having a heart attack in the long run.

keep in shape

For this posting, I would like to share about how to keep in shape.There have 5 easy ways to keep in shape.
1. Calf raise
Stand with the feet shoulder-width apart,arms by sides and a dumb-bell in each hand. Exhale as you raise your heels off the ground. Inhale as you return your heels slowly back to the ground.
2. Abdominal crunch
Lie on back-legs bent,feet flat,hands behind ears. Exhale as you curl up slowly. Only lift your shoulders and upper back off the floor. Don't pull on your head or neck. Inhale and slowly uncurl until you are lying back on the floor.
3. Tricep kickback
Kneel on all fours. Hold dumb-bell in hand and bend arm at the elbow. Exhale as you straighten your lower arm behind you. Inhale as you bring it back down.
4. Leg press
Stand with feet shoulder-width apart and a dumb-bell in each hand. Inhale as you squat slowly down. Keep your back straight. Don't bend your knees past a 90-degree angle. Exhale as you push back up. Don't lock your knees.
5. Lateral raise
Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, arms by sides and a dumb-bell in each hand. Keep elbows slightly bent. Exhale as you raise arms, inhale as you lower them.

P/S:regular strength training will help prevent injuries, protect joints and improve posture.

Advantages of Eating Mangoes

I like eating mangoes,so for this posting,I would like to share with all of you,the advantages of eating mangoes.
Mangoes contain also a lot of tryptophan, the precursor of the "happiness-hormone" serotonin.

a)Beauty Aids
Taking Mango regularly makes the complexion fair and the skin soft and shining

Because of it's content in Vitamin C and Calcium the Mango tightens the capillary vessels and prevents oder cures bleedings of inner parts.

Burnt ashes of Mango leaves applied on the burnt parts give quick relief

d)Children's eating soil
Feeding the powder of dried kernel of Mango seeds with fresh water cures the habit of eating soil in kinds

Sun dried Mango leaves powdered, 2-3 x a day half a teaspoon with water

f)Dry cough
Roast a ripe Mango on hot sand in a pan. Draw out the the juice of this Mango eliminates all the bronchial congestion and gives relief in cough.

Paste of Mango roots applied on palms & soles cures fever

h)Gall & Kidney Stones
Dried and powdered Mango leaves, 10g a day in water (kept overnight in a tumbler) helps throwing stones out

In India a decoction of the mango peel is given to people with inflammation of the stomach mucus membranes.

A pregnant woman should eat at least one mango a day - the calcium and magnesium of the mango relaxes the muscles, relieves stress and prevents abortion.

l)Teeth Problems
Dried Mango seeds is a good toothpaste, strengthens the gums and helps in curing dental problems foul smell pyorrhoea

Friday, October 17, 2008

How dyes bind to fabric

I read this information from Organic Chemistry. To be classified as a dye, a compound must be colored and it must bind to fabric. There are many ways for this binding to occur. Compounds that bind to fabric by some type of attractive forces are called direct dyes. These attractive forces may involve electrostatic interactions. The type of interaction depends on the structure of the dye and the fiber. Thus, a compound that is good dyeing wool or silk, both polyamides, may be poor for dyeing cotton, a carbohydrate. Wool and silk contain charged functional groups, such as NH₃⁺ and COO¯. Because of this, they bind to ionic dyes by electrostatic interactions. For example, positively charged NH₃⁺ groups bonded to the protein backbone are electrostatically attracted to anionic groups in a dye like methyl orange. Cotton, on the other hand, binds dyes by hydrogen bonding interactions with its many OH group. Thus, Congo red is bound to the cellulose backbone by hydrogen bonds.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

An MRI instrument is specially useful for visualizing soft tissues. In 2002, 60 million MRI procedures were performed. The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Sir Peter Mansfield for their contributions in developing magnetic resonance imaging. MRI, NMR spectroscopy in medicine, is a powerful diagnostic technique. The “sample” is the patient, who is placed in a large cavity in a magnetic field, and then irradiated with RF energy. Because RF energy has very low frequency and low energy, the method is safer than X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans that employ high-frequency, high-energy radiation that is known to damage living cells. Living tissue contains protons in different concentrations and environments. When irradiated with RF energy, these protons are excited to a higher energy spin state, and then fall back to the lower energy spin state. These data are analyzed by a computer that generates a plot that delineates tissues of different proton density. MRIs can be recorded in any plane. Moreover, because the calcium present in bones is not NMR active, an MRI instrument can “see through” bones such as the skull and visualize the soft tissue underneath.